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Underbillings, Overbillings and Contract Bonds

March 12, 2022

Underbillings and Overbillings are important to all contractors and contract Surety Bond underwriters. Learn more about what they are and what underwriters look for in determining a contractor’s bond capacity.


Percentage of Completion Accounting


Most contractors should be using the Percentage of Completion (POC) method of accounting. This is the most accurate method of construction accounting and creates both Underbillings and Overbillings. You can read more about the Different types of financial statements here.


What is an Underbilling?


This graphic shows how to determine if a project is underbilled or overbilled and what that means. The background is orange construction safety cones.


Underbillings are an industry name for Costs In Excess of Billings on Uncompleted Contracts. Simply put, they are revenue that a contractor has theoretically earned but not yet billed. For example, if a project is 50% complete but a contractor has only billed for 40%, the project is 10% underbilled.


Underbillings show up on a contractor’s Work in Progress Report. This report should tie back to a Contractor’s balance sheet where Underbillings appear as a current asset. Underbillings are a Current Asset because in theory, they should be revenue that the contractor can bill for and collect in the future.


Many contract surety bond companies base a contractor’s bond capacity as a multiple of working capital. Working Capital is calculated by taking Current Assets and subtracting Current Liabilities.


Shows the calculation for working capital and why its important to surety bond companies. Blue box with contractor tools in the background


In theory, because it’s a Current Asset, more underbillings should increase working capital and therefore surety bond capacity. However, this is almost never the case.

Underbillings and Bond Companies 


Contract Surety Bond companies are skeptical of underbillings because they often turn into losses. From a practical standpoint, underbillings often appear when there is a project dispute, a poor estimate, or bad billing practices.




Underbillings often happen when there is a dispute. The contractor submits a change order for work that has been done but cannot bill for it. This creates an underbilling. Contractors should ALWAYS have a signed change order in hand before doing work outside the contract.


For this reason, contract bond underwriters will closely monitor underbillings on a particular project. If the Underbilling remains for more than a billing cycle or two, most surety bond underwriters will assume it’s a loss, and remove it from their analysis.


Poor Estimate 


Underbillings can also occur when a project was estimated improperly. For example, a contractor may realize they have significantly more cost than originally estimated, but the contractor may be unable to bill for those costs under the contract.


Bad Billing Practices


Underbillings also show up when a contractor has bad billing practices. If a contractor has earned revenue that is not in dispute, the contractor should be billing for it. 


Constant underbillings are a sign that a contractor has poor accounting systems in place , and this is a major red flag to surety bond underwriters. Contractors often create Bonds claims and go bankrupt when they have bad systems in place.


When are Underbillings Acceptable?


There are situations when Underbillings are justified. One example is when a contractor is not allowed to bill for material or equipment until it is installed. 


Certain trades also tend to have more underbillings. However, these underbillings should generally be small and billed quickly.


What are Overbillings?


Overbillings are an industry term for Billings in Excess of Costs on Uncompleted Contracts. Simply put, these are revenues that a contractor has billed for, but that they have not yet earned. For example, if a contract is 50% complete and the contractor has billed for 60%, the project is 10% overbilled.


Overbillings also show up on a contractor’s Work In Progress Report and should tie back to the Contractor’s balance sheet as a Current Liability. Overbillings are a Current Liability because the contractor has billed for work they have not done. This will lead to a future cost that they cannot bill for.


Overbillings and Bond Companies


Most contract surety bond companies view some Overbilling as a positive. It is a best practice to stay slightly ahead of Billings on a project. In fact, an accepted industry practice is to “front load” a contract to cover mobilization, insurance and performance bond costs, etc. 


Overbillings can be a problem for contractors though. Bond underwriters will want to make sure that a contractor has enough cash and account receivables to offset Overbillings. This is because the contractor will have a cash outflow later in the project. Not having enough cash and receivables to offset Overbillings is a sign of cash flow troubles to come.


Job Borrow


While being slightly overbilled on a project is acceptable, job borrow is not. Job borrow occurs when a contractor uses Billings from one project to cash flow another project. 


Pure Job Borrow occurs when a project is overbilled by more than the project’s remaining Gross profit. Job Borrow is often a sign of cash flow issues to contract bond underwriters and other lenders.


Learn more about underbillings, overbillings and all the ways surety bond companies look at a Contractor’s Work in Progress Report here.


Every contractor should understand Underbillings and Overbillings. Accurate accounting and timely billing practices are vital to the success of any construction company. These practices are also essential to contractors needing contract bonds such as bid bonds, performance bonds and payment bonds. Contractors may use our free WIP Report here to help them track projects and billings.


Contact Axcess Surety anytime for best practices and help with all bond needs.


Other Frequently Asked Questions


What is an Underbilling and How is it used in Percentage-of-Completion Accounting?

An underbilling in Percentage of Completion Accounting occurs when a contractor has billed less on a project in a period than they have earned. For example, a contractor has earned earned 50% of the project revenue but only billed for 40%. The project would be 10% underbilled.

What is an Overbilling and How is it used in Percentage-of-Completion Accounting

An overbilling in Percentage of Completion Accounting occurs when a contractor has billed for more than they have earned on a project for a given period. For example, a contractor has earned 50% of the project revenue buth has billed for 60%. The project would be 10% overbilled.

Why is Overbilling a Liability?

The contractor has billed for work that has not been completed and will have costs when they do complete the work that they will not be able to bill for again. Therefore, an overbilling shows up as a Current Liability on a balance sheet.

Why is an Underbilling an Asset?

The contractor has performed work that has not been billed and should be able to bill and collect that revenue later. Therefore, an underbilling shows up as a Current Asset on a balance sheet.

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